Rule 12(f) provides that a court “may strike from a pleading an insufficient defense or any redundant, immaterial, impertinent, or scandalous matter.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(f). “[M]otions to strike should not be granted unless it is clear that the matter to be stricken could have no possible bearing on the subject matter of the litigation.” Colaprico v. Sun Microsys., Inc., 758 F. Supp. 1335, 1339 (N.D. Cal. 1991).
“Courts will not grant motions to strike unless ‘convinced that there are no questions of fact, that any questions of law are clear and not in dispute, and that under no set of circumstances could the claim or defense succeed.’” Novick v. UNUM Life Ins. Co. of America, 570 F.Supp.2d 1207, 1208 (C.D. Cal. 2008) (quoting RDF Media Ltd. v. Fox Broad. Co., 372 F. Supp. 2d 556, 561 (C.D. Cal. 2005)). “When ruling on a motion to strike, this Court ‘must view the pleading under attack in the light most favorable to the pleader.” Id. (citing RDF Media Ltd., 372 F. Supp. 2d at 561). “Motions to strike apply only to pleadings, and courts are unwilling to construe the rule broadly and refuse to strike motions, briefs, objections, affidavits, or exhibits attached thereto.” Foley v. Pont, No. 11cv1769-ECR-VCF, 2013 WL 782856, at *4 (D. Nev. Mar. 1, 2013); Caldwell v. Smith, No. 94-3066-CO, 1995 WL 555080, at *1 (D. Or. Sept. 1, 1995) (denying motion to strike since motion to dismiss is not a pleading).
“Pleadings” include: “(1) a complaint; (2) an answer to a complaint; (3) an answer to a counterclaim designated as a counterclaim; (4) an answer to a crossclaim; (5) a third-party complaint; (6) an answer to a third-party complaint; and (7) if the court orders one, a reply to an answer.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 7(a)(1)-(7). However, Rule 10 provides that a “copy of a written instrument that is an exhibit to a pleading is a part of the pleading for all purposes.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 10(c). Typically, the types of instruments that fall within the scope of Rule 10(c) “‘consist largely of documentary evidence, specifically, contracts, notes, and other writings on which a party’s action or defense is based.’” DeMarco v. DepoTech Corp., 149 F. Supp. 2d 1212, 1220 (S.D. Cal. 2001) (quoting Rose v. Bartle, 871 F.2d 331, 339 n.3 (3d Cir. 1989)). Evidentiary materials do not usually qualify as “written instruments” under Rule 10(c) and courts have granted motions to strike when the exhibits do not qualify as “written instruments.” Montgomery v. Buege, No. CIV 08-385 WBS KJM, 2009 WL 1034518, at *3 (E.D. Cal. Apr. 16, 2009) (citing cases); see United States v. Ritchie, 342 F.3d 903, 908 (9th Cir. 2003) (citing DeMarco, 149 F. Supp. 2d at 1219-21) (“Affidavits and declarations . . . are not allowed as pleading exhibits unless they form the basis of the complaint.”).
“Immaterial matter is that which has no essential or important relationship to the claim for relief or the defenses being pleaded.” Fantasy, Inc. v. Fogerty, 984 F.2d 1524, 1527 (9th Cir.1993), rev’d on other grounds 510 U.S. 517 (1994) (internal citations and quotations omitted). “Impertinentmatter consists of statementsthat do not pertain, and are not necessary, to the issues in question.” Id. (internal citations and quotations omitted).
A pleading is scandalous if it “improperly casts a derogatory light on someone, most typically on a party to the action.” Cortina v. Goya Foods, Inc., 94 F. Supp. 3d 1174, 1182 (S.D. Cal. 2015). If an offensive or scandalous allegation is relevant, it may not be subject to a motion to strike. 5 Charles A. Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure § 1382. “Nonetheless, the disfavored character of Rule 12(f) is relaxed somewhat in the context of scandalous allegations and matter of this type often will be stricken from the pleadings in order to purge the court’s files and protect the person who is the subject of the allegations.” Id.