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Nevada Rules of Civil Procedure

RULE 26.  GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING DISCOVERY

      (a) Discovery Methods.  At any time after the filing of a joint case conference report, or not sooner than 10 days after a party has filed a separate case conference report, or upon order by the court or discovery commissioner, any party who has complied with Rule 16.1(a)(1) may obtain discovery by one or more of the following additional methods: depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories; production of documents or things or permission to enter upon land or other property under Rule 34 or Rule 45(a)(1)(C), for inspection and other purposes; physical and mental examinations; and requests for admission.

      [As amended; effective January 1, 2005.]

       (b) Discovery Scope and Limits.  Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with these rules, the scope of discovery is as follows:

              (1) In General.  Parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter, not privileged, which is relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action, whether it relates to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or to the claim or defense of any other party, including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition and location of any books, documents, or other tangible things and the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter. It is not ground for objection that the information sought will be inadmissible at the trial if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. All discovery is subject to the limitations imposed by Rule 26(b)(2)(i), (ii), and (iii).

              (2) Limitations.  By order, the court may alter the limits in these rules or set limits on the number of depositions and interrogatories, the length of depositions under Rule 30 or the number of requests under Rule 36. The frequency or extent of use of the discovery methods otherwise permitted under these rules and by any local rule shall be limited by the court if it determines that: (i) the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or is obtainable from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; (ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by discovery in the action to obtain the information sought; or (iii) the discovery is unduly burdensome or expensive, taking into account the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, limitations on the parties’ resources, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation. The court may act upon its own initiative after reasonable notice or pursuant to a motion under subdivision (c) of this rule.

              (3) Trial Preparation: Materials.  Subject to the provisions of subdivision (b)(4) of this rule, a party may obtain discovery of documents and tangible things otherwise discoverable under subdivision (b)(1) of this rule and prepared in anticipation of litigation or for trial by or for another party or by or for that other party’s representative (including the other party’s attorney, consultant, surety, indemnitor, insurer, or agent) only upon a showing that the party seeking discovery has substantial need of the materials in the preparation of the party’s case and that the party is unable without undue hardship to obtain the substantial equivalent of the materials by other means. In ordering discovery of such materials when the required showing has been made, the court shall protect against disclosure of the mental impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal theories of an attorney or other representative of a party concerning the litigation.

       A party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that party. Upon request, a person not a party may obtain without the required showing a statement concerning the action or its subject matter previously made by that person. If the request is refused, the person may move for a court order. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion. For purposes of this paragraph, a statement previously made is (A) a written statement signed or otherwise adopted or approved by the person making it, or (B) a stenographic, mechanical, electrical, or other recording, or a transcription thereof, which is a substantially verbatim recital of an oral statement by the person making it and contemporaneously recorded.

              (4) Trial Preparation: Experts.

                    (A) A party may depose any person who has been identified as an expert whose opinions may be presented at trial. If a report from the expert is required under Rule 16.1(a)(2)(B) or 16.2(a)(3), the deposition shall not be conducted until after the report is provided.

      [As amended; effective July 1, 2008.]

                    (B) A party may, through interrogatories or by deposition, discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to be called as a witness at trial, only as provided in Rule 35(b) or upon a showing of exceptional circumstances under which it is impracticable for the party seeking discovery to obtain facts or opinions on the same subject by other means.

                    (C) Unless manifest injustice would result, (i) the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a reasonable fee for time spent in responding to discovery under this subdivision; and (ii) with respect to discovery obtained under subdivision (b)(4)(B) of this rule, the court shall require the party seeking discovery to pay the other party a fair portion of the fees and expenses reasonably incurred by the latter party in obtaining facts and opinions from the expert.

              (5) Claims of Privilege or Protection of Trial Preparation Materials.  When a party withholds information otherwise discoverable under these rules by claiming that it is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material, the party shall make the claim expressly and shall describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced or disclosed in a manner that, without revealing information itself privileged or protected, will enable other parties to assess the applicability of the privilege or protection.

      [As amended; effective January 1, 2005.]

       (c) Protective Orders.  Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought, accompanied by a certification that the movant has in good faith conferred or attempted to confer with the other affected parties in an effort to resolve the dispute without court action, and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending may make any order which justice requires to protect a party or person from annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense, including one or more of the following:

              (1) that the discovery not be had;

              (2) that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place;

              (3) that the discovery may be had only by a method of discovery other than that selected by the party seeking discovery;

              (4) that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of the discovery be limited to certain matters;

              (5) that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court;

              (6) that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by order of the court;

              (7) that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be revealed or be revealed only in a designated way;

              (8) that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court.

If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may, on such terms and conditions as are just, order that any party or other person provide or permit discovery. The provisions of Rule 37(a)(4) apply to the award of expenses incurred in relation to the motion.

      [As amended; effective January 1, 2005.]

       (d) Sequence and Timing of Discovery.  After compliance with subdivision (a) of this rule, unless the court upon motion, for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interests of justice, orders otherwise, methods of discovery may be used in any sequence and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or otherwise, does not operate to delay any other party’s discovery.

      [As amended; effective January 1, 2005.]

       (e) Supplementation of Disclosures and Responses.  A party who has made a disclosure under Rule 16.1 or 16.2 or responded to a request for discovery with a disclosure or response is under a duty to supplement or correct the disclosure or response to include information thereafter acquired, if ordered by the court or in the following circumstances:

      [As amended; effective July 1, 2008.]

              (1) A party is under a duty to supplement at appropriate intervals its disclosures under Rule 16.1(a) or 16.2(a) if the party learns that in some material respect the information disclosed is incomplete or incorrect and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the discovery process or in writing. With respect to testimony of an expert from whom a report is required under Rule 16.1(a)(2)(B) the duty extends both to information contained in the report and to information provided through a deposition of the expert, and any additions or other changes to this information shall be disclosed by the time the party’s disclosures under Rule 16.1(a)(3) are due.

      [As amended; effective July 1, 2008.]

              (2) A party is under a duty seasonably to amend a prior response to an interrogatory, request for production or request for admission, if the party learns that the response is in some material respect incomplete or incorrect and if the additional or corrective information has not otherwise been made known to the other parties during the discovery process or in writing.

      [As amended; effective January 1, 2005.]

       (f) Form of Responses.  Answers and objections to interrogatories or requests for production shall identify and quote each interrogatory or request for production in full immediately preceding the statement of any answer or objections thereto. Answers, denials, and objections to requests for admission shall identify and quote each request for admission in full immediately preceding the statement of any answer, denial, or objection thereto.

      [Added; effective February 11, 1986; Amended effective January 1, 2005.]

       (g) Signing of Disclosures, Discovery Requests, Responses, and Objections.

              (1) Every disclosure and report made pursuant to Rules 16.1(a)(1), 16.1(a)(3), 16.1(c), 16.2(a)(2), 16.2(a)(4), and 16.2(d) shall be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney’s individual name, whose address shall be stated. An unrepresented party shall sign the disclosure and state the party’s address. The signature of the attorney or party constitutes a certification that to the best of the signer’s knowledge, information, and belief, formed after a reasonable inquiry, the disclosure is complete and correct as of the time it is made.

      [As amended; effective July 1, 2008.]

              (2) Every discovery request, response or objection made by a party represented by an attorney shall be signed by at least one attorney of record in the attorney’s individual name, whose address shall be stated. An unrepresented party shall sign the request, response, or objection and state the party’s address. The signature of the attorney or party constitutes a certification that to the best of the signer’s knowledge, information, and belief, formed after a reasonable inquiry, the request, response, or objection, is:

                    (A) consistent with these rules and warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law;

                    (B) not interposed for any improper purpose, such as to harass, obscure, equivocate or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation; and

                    (C) not unreasonable or unduly burdensome or expensive, given the needs of the case, the discovery already had in the case, the amount in controversy, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation.

 If a request, response, or objection is not signed, it shall be stricken unless it is signed promptly after the omission is called to the attention of the party making the request, response or objection and a party shall not be obligated to take any action with respect to it until it is signed.

              (3) If without substantial justification a certification is made in violation of this rule, the court, upon motion or upon its own initiative, shall impose upon the person who made the certification, the party on whose behalf the disclosure, request, response, or objection was made, or both, an appropriate sanction, which may include an order to pay the amount of the reasonable expenses incurred because of the violation, including a reasonable attorney’s fee.

      [Added; effective January 1, 1988; Amended effective January 1, 2005.]

       (h) Demand for Prior Discovery.  Whenever a party makes a written demand for discovery which took place prior to the time the party became a party to the action, each party who has previously made discovery disclosures, responded to a request for admission or production or answered interrogatories shall make available to the demanding party the document(s) in which the discovery disclosures and responses in question are contained for inspection and copying or furnish to the demanding party a list identifying each such document by title and upon further demand shall furnish to the demanding party, at the expense of the demanding party, a copy of any listed discovery disclosure or response specified in the demand or, in the case of document disclosure or request for production, shall make available for inspection by the demanding party all documents and things previously produced. Further, each party who has taken a deposition shall make a copy of the transcript thereof available to the demanding party at the latter’s expense.

      [Added; effective February 11, 1986; Amended effective January 1, 2005.]

About the Author

Jay Young is a Las Vegas, Nevada attorney. His practice focuses on business law, business litigation, and acting as an Arbitrator and Mediator.

Mr. Young can be reached at 702.667.4868 or at jay@h2law.com.